Контроль сформированности умения чтения

Несмотря на исключительное внимание в
последнее время к устной речи как объекту
обучения иностранному языку, чему так
способствовало расширение международных
контактов, широкое распространение СМИ, новый
социальный заказ общества, значение чтения в
жизни современного человека, как на родном, так и
на иностранном языке остаётся очень большим.
Чтение – самостоятельный вид речевой
деятельности, который обеспечивает письменную
форму общения. Из методики обучения иностранным
языкам известно, что читать на иностранном языке
– значит осуществлять сложное речевое умение
для получения новой информации, заключённой в
представляющем её графическом источнике,
называемом текстом. Текст – это коммуникативная
единица, характеризующаяся наличием
коммуникативного задания, воспроизводимостью,
смысловой законченностью, социальной
детерминированностью. В рецептивных видах
речевой деятельности текст выступает как объект
деятельности учащегося, результатом которой
является смысловое восприятие текста. Параметры
оценки этого результата: степень правильности
интерпретации коммуникативного намерения,
адекватность степени полноты и точности
понимания информации текста поставленной цели, с
которой реципиент читает текст, темпоральные
характеристики процесса понимания. Ведущую роль
при овладении чтением на иностранном языке
играет сформированность умения извлекать из
текста максимум возможных опор для понимания:
фактологических, логических, контекстуальных. Не
следует забывать, что на успешность чтения
оказывают влияние не только индивидуальные
особенности психической деятельности чтеца, его
жизненный и лингвистический опыт, но и специфика
читаемого текста, т.е. его функциональные стили,
форма изложения, логико-композиционные
особенности и т.д. Эти параметры текста должны
учитываться при решении задачи контроля чтения.
Тексты, предназначенные для контроля, должны
содержать материал, способствующий развитию
логического мышления, быть интересными, будить
воображение и быть приемлемыми для учащихся
данного возраста не только
лексико-грамматическим наполнением, но и
содержанием. Объектами контроля являются
следующие умения:

  1. перцептивная переработка текста – опознавание
    языковых единиц, дифференцирование многозначных
    и многофункциональных единиц из числа знакомых,
    выявление связей между элементами текста, точно
    понимать строевые элементы языка, пользоваться
    словарём;
  2. умения смысловой переработки текста –
    прогнозирование лингвистического и смыслового
    развёртывания текста, выделение основной мысли,
    ключевых слов, обобщение отдельных фактов;
  3. умения переработки информации на уровне смысла
    – оценивание изложенного материала,
    интерпретация содержания текста, вынесение
    суждений.

При проверке умений учащихся в чтении мы должны
проверять насколько учащийся понимает
прочитанный текст в целом, насколько точно он
может воспроизвести прочитанное. По мнению
многих учёных, занимающихся проблемой контроля
обученности навыкам чтения, проблема состоит в
том, что не существует универсальных форм и
методов контроля, т.к. каждый конкретный текст
обладает в этом отношении своими возможностями.
Предлагаемые мною тексты предназначены для
контроля навыков чтения учащихся 6-х классов школ
с углублённым изучением английского языка.
Послетекстовые задания составлены таким
образом, что они позволяют проконтролировать
умения перцептивной, смысловой переработки
информации, а также умения переработки
информации на уровне смысла. На первом этапе
учащимся предлагается внимательно прочитать
текст, отметить ключевые элементы. В менее
подготовленных группах можно разрешить
составить небольшой глоссарий и разрешить
воспользоваться словарём. Затем задания
выполняются без опоры на текст.

Test in Reading (6th form, level III)

The Travellers and the Bear

It was a wonderful day. Through the thick leaves of the trees the sunlight played on
the grass and flowers. Everything was quiet and calm. But the two travellers were not
happy at all. They were walking through the forest. Their voices rang through the trees.
They knew that the forest was full of wild animals, wolves, foxes, and bears. Hunters had
killed many of them, but it was still dangerous to meet a wild animal there either a weak
old one or a young strong one. It seemed that animals and birds were watching the people
from their hidden places and the animals were ready to tear them into pieces at once.

“Will you stop worrying?”- cried one of the travellers in a loud voice. “Nothing
is going to happen. I’ll look after you. Everything will be all right. So, let’s try
to enjoy the fine weather.”

His friend heard all of this, but it didn’t help. He was so afraid that every little
sound made him jump. He was sure that wild animals were waiting to jump at them.

A second later a great bear jumped out in front of the travellers. There was no time to
think. It was too late to run away. The first traveller, who had promised so much, was
light and quick on his feet. He climbed up the nearest tree as fast as he could and
disappeared among the thick green leaves.

The second traveller was not so quick. When he saw that his friend had left him? He
fell flat on the ground, held his breath, and lay very still. He had very little of a
chance to stay alive.

The bear looked at him, quite surprised. This was something new and strange that the
animal couldn’t understand.

The bear moved slowly around the man, it sniffed him over, it touched the traveller’s
ear with its nose. The traveller lay very quiet, like a dead man. Was it true that bears
wouldn’t touch dead bodies? Would the bear leave him alone? What was the bear going to
do? Would he die at once or would the bear wound him?

Seconds passed. Each one seemed as long as a lifetime. At last the bear lifted his
head. With an angry cry it left the man and ran off into the woods again.

The traveller in the tree climbed down. His face was white.

“Tell me, my friend,” he said, “What did the bear whisper in your ear?”

“He told me,” answered the other, “to be careful with a friend who runs away when
danger comes.”

Test Exercises

I. Make the right choice.

The main characters of the text are

a) a man, a woman and a bear
b) wo bears and a man
c) two men and a bear

II. Complete the sentences and number the facts in the order they come in the
story

a) The _____________________ in the tree climbed down.
b) The bear _________________ around his head and went ____________.
c) One of the travellers was very _____________ as they walked through the ________.
d) A bear _____________ out at the men.
e) The travellers were _________ through the __________ on a fine day.
f) The first traveller ___________ up the tree.
g) The other traveller pretended to be ____________.
h) The traveller who was in the tree was curious to know what the ________ told in his
friend’s ear.

III. Find the correct ending.

One of the travellers promised to defend his friend if there was any danger, because

a) he was a strong man
b) he liked to boast
c) he was not afraid of wild animals
d) he didn’t think there would be any serious danger

IV. Correct the statements if they are wrong.

  1. It was a terrible day, the weather was nasty.
  2. The two travellers walking through the forest were happy and merry.
  3. One of the travellers was afraid of everything.
  4. A huge lion jumped out in front of the men.
  5. The men ran away as fast as they could.

V. Choose the proverb that expresses the main idea of the story and try to
prove your choice.

  1. Barkers are no biters.
  2. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
  3. False friends are worse than open enemies.

VI. Answer the questions.

  1. Why were the travellers talking in such loud voices?
  2. Why did the first traveller forget his promise to defend his friend?
  3. Why didn’t the bear touch the second man?
  4. Did the second man understand what kind of man his friend was?
  5. What lesson does the story teach us?

Test in Reading (6th form, level IV)

The Shot that Backfired (after S. Mackey)

I was eleven when my father gave me an air-gun. The first thing I shot was a little
robin. I remember how sorry I was when it fell.

Later I found my father in the garden. He was taking flies from a spider web. He put
the flies into a matchbox.

“What are you doing, Dad?” I asked. He took me to another part of the garden.
There, in a bush, he showed me a nest with four young birds in it. Slowly my father opened
the matchbox. He dropped the flies into the wide – opened mouths of the baby-robins. I
knew at once why he was feeding them. All I said was “May I help you?”

“Of course, Harry. But it’s hard work.”

All that afternoon I dug worms and hunted for bugs in the garden to feed the
baby-robins. That night Father put some wool around the birds to keep them warm.

Next morning he came into me room early with one of the baby-robins in his hand. “It
died during the night,” he said. “We must work hard to keep the others alive.” Words
couldn’t describe my fillings. I felt terrible. I remembered that I had read about black
robins, there were only few of them in the world.

After supper that evening we found another bird dead. A few days later my father
brought in the third bird. It was dead too.

“The last one is a strong little fellow,” Father said later.

“He may try out his wings soon. But he will have a hard job. There is no one to teach
him to fly and perhaps he is weak from too little food, we gave him. Mother robin flies
around all the day long to find enough food for her babies.”

One day we found the little robin on a branch. It had come out of the nest. I so much
wanted this little bird to fly. I watched him as he fell off the branch. For a second his
wings beat the air. Then he fell to the ground – dead.

“Poor little thing,” Father said. “He didn’t have much of a chance, did he?”

I couldn’t keep my fillings any more. Sadly I cried out, “Oh, Dad, it’s my fault.
I killed their mother, so they had no chance to survive.”

“I know, Son. I saw you did it. It was a thing many boys have done. But I just wanted
you to see that if you hurt anything or anybody, you’ll also hurt some others. Perhaps
you may hurt even the ones who love you. And so often you yourself are the one who is hurt
most.”

Test Exercises

I. Complete the sentences with the most suitable words.

  1. The first thing I _____________ was a little ____________.
  2. The father showed a __________ with _________ little birds in it.
  3. The boy dug worms and bugs to _____________ the little birds.
  4. They had to work hard to ___________ the little birds _________.
  5. The last baby-robin tried to ___________, but he had no _________ to do that.

II. Put the statements into the logical order.

a) The father showed Harry four young birds in the nest.
b) Harry’s father gave him an air-gun.
c) The first thing Harry shot was a little robin.
d) Three baby-robins died in the nest.
e) The father put some wool around the nest to keep the birds warm.
f) One day they found a little robin on a branch.
g) All that afternoon Harry dug worms and bugs in the garden.
h) The baby-robin fell to the ground dead.
i) The last of the baby-birds tried to fly.
j) Harry watched the last baby-robin fall off the branch.

III. Find the correct ending.

This story tells us that …

  1. birds cannot fly if no one teaches them to fly.
  2. Fathers mustn’t give their sons air-guns.
  3. if you hurt anything or anybody, you’ll also hurt some others.
  4. if you’ve done a mistake, it’s better to correct it at once.
  5. you shouldn’t do any harm to animals and birds.

IV. Choose the statements which are right to the text.

  1. Harry didn’t want to kill the robin.
  2. Harry’s father gave his son a toy-gun to play with.
  3. Harry found a nest with baby-robins in it in the garden.
  4. Harry’s father took care of the baby-birds, because he wanted to teach his son a
    lesson.
  5. Only one baby bird died.
  6. Harry felt nothing when he saw the baby- robins in the nest.
  7. Harry understood that it was his fault.
  8. It’s a funny story about the boy and his father.
  9. The last baby-robin survived.
  10. Harry was very sorry and upset when he saw the last bird dead.

V. Answer the questions.

  1. What did Harry feel when he killed the robin?
  2. Why did Harry’s father take care of the baby-robins?
  3. What happened to the little robins? Why did it happen?
  4. Do you like Harry’s father? Why?
  5. What lesson did Harry learn?

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