топики на экзамен
My future profession
Finishing school is the beginning of the independent life for millions of school leavers. Many roads are open to them: technical schools, institutes and universities. But it is not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than 2000 existing professions in the world. Some pupils follow the advice of their parents, others can’t decide even after leaving school. Choosing the kind of career to follow is probably one of the most important decisions you will ever make. Before you make this decision you will have to do a lot of thinking about who you are, about the things you like to do and the things you do well. It is an advantage to choose a future career while at school. It gives a goal to work towards and enables to choose a right, suitable course of study. When deciding your future you must be realistic about your interests and abilities. Frankly speaking at present I have a very vogue idea about my future career and I am unable to give a detailed account of the activities it will involve.
But I am convinced that for every trade, profession or occupation you have to acquire necessary skills and practical experience. Not all professions require higher education and they are of great demand now and satisfy the needs of society. But I see things a little differently, because it is my firm belief that learning is the greatest of all adventures, and being a highly educated person gives you top priority and a position in society and what is most important — self-satisfaction. And now being not so far from leaving school the career sounds interesting to me if I have a higher education, good working conditions, if I can get steady salary, if it suits my interests, if it is not monotonous and gives me promotion in the future, if it helps me to establish myself in life and can give me independence and opportunities to develop special abilities and of course if I’m able to take it up and my interests can be channeled in to this work.
As for me in future I would like to become an interpreter. I know that interpreters have opportunities to visit different countries and continents. It attracts me, because I’ll get acquainted with various peoples and I’ll learn their customs, rituals and traditions. I’m sure that this creative profession enriches our mind and we become more educated. I think that an interpreter is a very useful profession, because it helps people to communicate. But of course if you want to be an interpreter, you will need definite qualification. At first you must know one foreign language at least. It’s good, if you know English (the language of the planet) and any other language. Also you should know colloquial expressions and slang. You should know the history of the country the language of which you are studying, ways of life that are typical for this country, etc. And of course you must be a sociable, communicative and patient person. I think that this kind of career will suit me because I have almost all qualifications that are needed. But I must continue to work with English grammar and vocabulary as well and German pronunciation. I like this job and I hope that I’ll become an interpreter. I hope that my dream will be realized. I try to read English books in the original, learn 10 words at a time and listen to English songs every day, because I want to fulfill my ambitions.
The national character of the English has been described in different ways, but most commentators agree over one quality, which they describe as a sense of superiority or “insular pride. English patriotism is based on a deep sense of security. Englishmen as individuals may have been insecure, threatened with the loss of their job, unsure of themselves or unhappy in many ways. But as a nation they have been secure for centuries.
The English are a well-disciplined people and it is probably no exaggeration to say that they have the best manners in the world. They are all polite, they all know how to hold their knife and fork and how to behave in society. Besides they are never rude. Coarse expressions are hardly ever used. You may be struck by the fact that life in Britain is less noisy.
The English display a surprising unity in a crisis. They also have a strong sense for public order. The apparent coldness of Englishmen has been almost universally noted by the foreigners. But they also confess that once one gets to know an Englishman better, he turns out to be a very companionable fellow.
The typical feature of the English is their love of games. They love playing all of them. They play football and cricket; games are nowhere so popular as in England. But however childish at their games they are very serious in business.
The British have long been famous as a nation of animal-lovers. There is a pet in nearly every family and often the family dog or cat has a special chair near the fire, special food and a special place in the hearts of its owners. All this doesn’t mean that the English differ from other human beings. They certainly feel the same emotions: jealousy, envy, joy and happiness as others— only their external reactions are different.
When one speaks of the English, one usually means all the nations living within the borders of the United Kingdom — Scots, Welsh or Irish. The difference between these nations is great enough for everyone who lives in Britain, but for the outside world it is less apparent.
Kazakhstan. Geographical position
Kazakhstan, officially Republic of Kazakhstan, has the population of 15,186,000 people and territory 2,719,500 sq km, is situated in central Asia. It borders on Siberian Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and European Russia in the west. Astana is the capital and Almaty (Alma-Ata) is the largest city. Other major cities include Shymkent, Semey, Aqtobe, and Oskemen.
Kazakhstan consists of a vast flatland, bordered by a high mountain belt in the southeast. It extends from the lower Volga and the Caspian Sea in the west to the Altai Mts. in the east. It is largely lowland in the north and west, hilly in the center (Kazakh Hills), and mountainous in the south and east (Tian Shan and Altai ranges). Kazakhstan is a region of inland drainage; the Syr Darya, the Ili, the Chu, and other rivers drain into the Aral Sea and Lake Balkash. Most of the region is desert or has limited and irregular rainfall.
The population of Kazakhstan consists mainly of Muslim Kazakhs and Russians; there are smaller minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Uzbeks, and Tatars. Kazakh, a Turkic language, is the official tongue, but Russian is still widely used.
Despite Kazakhstan’s largely arid conditions, its vast steppes accommodate both livestock and grain production. Wheat, cotton, sugar beets, and tobacco are the main crops. The raising of cattle and sheep is also important, and Kazakhstan produces much wool and meat. In addition, there are rich fishing grounds, famous for their caviar-producing sturgeon, in the Caspian, although these have been hurt by overfishing.
The Kazakh Hills in the core of the region have important mineral resources. Coal is mined at Qaraghandy and Ekibastuz, and there are major oil fields in the Emba basin. The country’s industries are located along the margins of the country. Steel, agricultural and mining machinery, superphosphate fertilizers, phosphorus acids, artificial fibers, synthetic rubber, textiles, and medicines are among the manufactured goods. Temirtau is the iron and steel center. The Baikonur (Bayqongyr) Cosmodrome in central Kazakhstan was the Soviet space-operations center and continues to serve Russian space exploration through an agreement between the two nations. The main trading partners are Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
Astana — the Capital of Kazakhstan
On December 10, 1997 the city was renamed to Akmola and declared the capital of Kazakhstan. Later, on May 6, 1998 it was renamed to Astana. Astana is an important industrial and cultural center of the republic, also railway auto-transport junction.
In 1824 it was founded as the military locality, in 1868 it had got the status of the town, and in 1950s it was an important center of development of virgin and disused lands in the north of the country. The industry of the town is represented by agri-mechanical engineering, food industry, refining of the agricultural raw material, and transport. Earlier it was the fortification founded by the Russian Kazak troops in 1830 on the bank of the Ishim River in Karaotkel natural boundary.
Akmolinsk acquired the status of a town in 1862. In the past it was famous for its fairs. Merchants from all regions of Kazakhstan, Russia and Central Asian countries used to gather and show their goods. As the development of untouched lands began, the town was renamed Tselinograd and typified the administrative center of an agricultural region.
Since acquiring the status of the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997 the city’s face has changed dramatically. The architects and builders working in the capital create wonderful architectural ensembles, which har moniously combine modern design and oriental color.
The Bayterek Tower has become the city’s symbol and its trademark. The height of the construction is 105 meters. At the mark of 97 meters there is an observation deck providing a bird’s eye view of the city. The figure of 97 was not chosen at random. It symbolizes the year of moving the capital from Almaty to Astana. The Baiterek Tower accommodates an art gallery, a large aquarium and a restaurant.
Astana is turning into one of the main business centers. All governmental organizations, diplomatic missions of 44 countries and 113 joint ventures and foreign businesses are located there. Every year the city hosts various international industrial exhibitions, conferences musical contests and festivals of Kazakhstani people. In 1999 by the decision of UNESCO Astana was awarded the title of World City.
The city has an ореrа and ballet theater, a drama theater and a variety of museums Monuments of Astana are a linking element between the new capital and its history held in esteem by all peoples of Kazakhstan. Currently many administrative buildings, business and entertainment centers of the capital of Kazakhstan are under construction. Among them is Duman entertainment complex. It is a place for public recreation featuring an oceanarium, a 3D movie theater, a theater, area for slot machines and interactive games, a multifunctional sideshow venue, bowling, a night club, a casino, a hotel, cafes and restaurants and an indoor aquapark. Another attraction of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, is the ethnopark «Map of Kazakhstan- Atameken» representing a unique outdoor museum. The map area of 1.7 hectares features cities and historical memorials of Kazakhstan.
The climate of the region is extreme with typically long and snowy winters. Average January temperature is -14 ° C to 18 °C with dropdown below -40°C. Spring is late but amazing beautiful. It comes at the end of March. At this time steppe looks especially wonderful with its wealth of blooming toffees and tulips. Summers are moderately hot, with lots of showers and dear sunny days. Average Julv temperature is pins 20 ° С to 24 °C.
Let me introduce myself. My name is Igor. I’m sixteen years old. I’m tall, slender, dark-haired boy with blue eyes.
I live in Kiev. I have a brother and sister. My elder brother Sergey is twenty, he studies at the Kiev National University, and he will be a lawyer. My younger sister Olga is ten, she studies at school. By the way, we have one more memder of our family, cat Ryzhik. We love him very much.
My Mum is forty-two, she is a Spanish teacher. My Dad is forty-five, he is a computer programmer.
My grandparents are already retired. My Grandma likes gardening, and Grandpa likes fishing. They live in our city and visit us as weekends.
I have many friends. We spend a lot of time together. We play football, volleyball, basketball. In summer we like swimming in river and lakes.
Besides school, I go in for sports. I play tennis. It’s exiting game, and I like it very much. Sometimes I take part in different tennis competition.
Soon I will graduate a school and I have to choose a profession. However, I have many interes and hobbies, for example, sports, traveling, music, so it’s not so easy to choose an accupation. My parents want me to come to be a computer programmer, like my Dad.
But I’m not sure because I’m not very good in mathematics. I like computer games, I like to surf the Net, to communicate with people in different social nets and forums. I even have my own blog. But I don’t want a computer programming to be my profession. Also I like tennis, but I don’t want to be a professional sportsman. You can ask me, why? Because I have another passion!
I’m fond of traveling so I’d like to work for a tour company. I dream to visit countries throught the world and to see all sightseengs and great places. I hope my dreams will come true!
English is the language of communication
Today English is the language of the world. It is only in the course of the last hundred years that English has become a world language. In Shakespeare’s time it was a “provincial” language of secondary importance with only 6 million native speakers. Nowadays over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue.
English is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, of Australia, and New Zealand. It is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish Republic. English is also spoken as a second language in the former British and US colonies. In a number of speakers (400 million) it is second only to Chinese. English is the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology and business. It is the language of literature, education, modern music, and international tourism. English is the major language of diplomacy, it is one of the official languages of United Nation organization and other political organizations.
Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today. One should say that English is not an easy language to learn. There is a big problem of spelling, of the large number of exceptions to any rule. This language is very idiomatic and the prepositions are terrible. English is one of those languages which may seem easy in the beginning, but then the bridge between basic knowledge and mastery takes a long time to cross. But if you cross this bridge it will give you great satisfaction. You will be able to speak to people from other countries, to read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider. To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.
Is it easy to learn foreign languages?
Which language in the world is spoken by most people?
When did you begin learning English?
What was the process of learning?
Why is English not an easy language to learn?
Why is it necessary to learn English?
What advantages have the people who know foreign languages?
Places of Interest in Great Britain
Britain is rich in its historic places which link the present with the past.
The oldest part of London is Lud Hill, where the city is originated. About a mile west of it there is Westminster Palace where the king lived and the Parliament met, and there is also Westminster Abbey, the coronation church.
Liverpool, the «city of ships», is England’s second greatest port, ranking after London. The most interesting sight in the Liverpool is the docks. They occupy a river frontage of seven miles. The University of Liverpool, established in 1903, is noted for its School of Tropical Medicine. And in the music world Liverpool is a well-known name, for it’s the home town of «the Beatles».
Stratford-on-Avon lies 93 miles north-west of London. Shakespeare was born here in 1564, and here he died in 1616.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, presumably built by Druids, members of an order of priests in ancient Britain. Tintagel Castle is King Arthur’s reputed birthplace. Canterbury Cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, head of the Church of England.
The British Museum is the largest and richest museum in the world. It was founded in 1753 and contains one of the world’s richest collections of antiquities. Some parts of Athens’ Parthenon are in the Greek section.
Madam Tussaud’s Museum is an exhibition of hundreds of life-size wax models of famous people of yesterday and today. The collection was started by Madam Tussaud, a French modeller in wax, in the 18 century. Here you can meet Marilyn Monroe, Elton John, Picasso, the Royal Family, the Beatles and many others: writers, movie stars, singers, politicians, sportsmen.
1. What is the oldest part of London?
2. What is Westminster Palace?
3. What is called «city of ships»?
4. Why is Stratford -on Avon famous?
5. What are the famous centers of learning?
6. What is Stonehenge?
7. Who is the head of Church of England? What is seat?
8. What can one see in Madam Tussaud’s Museum?
Lud Hill — Лад Хилл
frontage — доисторический
order — орден
priest — священник
Tintage — Тинтэйджэл
Canterbury Cathedral Archbishop — архиепископ Кентерберийский
antiquity — антиквариа; древность
mummies — мумии
Good health is above wealth. If our body suffers from any disorder, our mind suffers from it too and we can’t be happy.
The ancient Greeks knew the value of good health. They even named one goddess Hygeia, which means the goddess of health. Hygeia, was the daughter of Aslepius, the god of medicine. The Greeks prayed to her to give them good health.
The Romans spoke of health in a famous proverb: “A healthy mind in a healthy body.”
In addition to physical health, an understanding of mental health is also important.
Therefore if we want to feel well we should keep our body in perfect order. There are certain laws of keeping fit. They are so simple that even a little child can learn them.
We should spend a lot of time in the fresh air. Especially children should spend about two or three hours a day in the fresh air. Fresh air is very important for good health. Every day rooms should be properly cleaned and aired in our houses. If we want to keep fit we should take regular exercises and take a cool or cold shower. Never smoke is the main rule. It is also very important to get up early and go to bed early. If we want to be healthy food we should eat only healthy food rich in vitamins.
Hygeia [hai’d ʒ i: ə] – Гигея
Asclepius [ə sk’li: pj ə s] — Асклепий
To suffer [ˈsʌfər] - страдатьto feel (felt, felt) — чувствовать
Disorder [dɪsˈɔːdər] - расстройствоperfect [ˈpəːfɪkt] – совершенный
Mind [maind] — разумorder [ˈɔːdər] — порядок
Ancient [ˈeɪnʃənt] — древнийcertain [ˈsəːtən] — определенный
Value [ˈvæljuː] - ценностьlaw [lɔː] - закон
To name – называть to keep fit – быть бодрым и здоровым
Goddess [ˈgɔdɪs] — богиняsimple — простой
Health [hɛlθ] — здоровье especially [ɪsˈpɛʃlɪ] — особенно
To pray [preɪ] to — молиться кому – либо properly [ˈprɔpəlɪ] – должным образом
To add — добавлять to air [ɛər] — проветрить
Mental [ˈmɛntl ] — умственный rich [rɪtʃ] - богатый
Answer the questions.
In your opinion, can be happy if our body suffers from any disorder? Why/Why not?
What should we do to fell well?
What laws of keeping fit do you know?
Is it difficult for you to do morning exercises every day? Do you it every day? How long does it take you to do exercises in the morning and in the evening? Where do you usually do these exercises? Do you always take a shower after doing morning exercises? Is it a cold or warm shower?
Do you know that you should air you room several times a day and especially before going to bed? Do you remember about it? Do you always do it?
In your opinion, what are the main rules we must keep to feel well?
What did the Romans say about health? Do you agree with the proverb: “A healthy mind in a healthy body”? Why?
What do you know about the Greek goddess of health? What was her name? Whose daughter was she? Why did the Greeks pray to her?
A few years ago we received a new flat in one of the new districts of the city. It is far from the centre, but there is a big park nearby and the air is always fresh. We have lived in our new flat for three years and I like it here.
The flat is big and spacious. It is on the 4th floor of a nine-storey building. There is a big hall, a spacious ssitting room, my parents’ bedroom, my sister’s room and mine. I am happy to have a room of my own; there is little furniture in it, just my bed, a desk, a couple of chairs and bookshelves and a music centre. I also have a balcony where I keep my skies, a bycycle and some old things.
The biggest room is the sitting room, it faces the park.
There is a lot of furniture in it: a sofa, a table with chairs around it, two armchairs, a piano, a big bookcase and a lot of bookshelves. The TV set is also in the sitting room. There are some pictures on the walls and a big carpet on the floor. When we have guests at home we use it as a dining room, too.
Our mother’s favourite room is the kitchen. When she comes home from work, she spends all her time in the kitchen. It is a big and comfortable and we usually have our meals in the kitchen. There isn’t much furniture in it. We have a big refrigerator , a gas cooker, a kitchen table with four stools, some cup-boards and a sink.
Our father’s favourite room is the sitting room where he likes to read books, look through newspapers, watch TV or talk with us.
My younger sister’s room is small. It has only one window, but she is proud of it. She has all her favourite pictures and photographs on the walls.
spacious — просторный
comfortable — удобный, комфортабельный
convenient — удобный
to have a room of one’s own — иметь собственную квартиру
to have meals — есть, принимать пищу
to look through newspapers — просматривать газеты
I would like ( I’d like ) — мне бы хотелось
to have a housewarming party — устраивать новоселье
to come to smb.’s place — проходить к кому-л. домой
Answer the Following Questions
1. Do you live in a house or in a flat?
2. How long have you lived in this flat ( house ) ?
3. How many rooms are there in your flat?
4. What furniture do you have in the kitchen?
5. What is your favourite place in your flat ( house ) ?
6. Where is the TV set in your flat?
7. Where does your family like to gather in the evening?
8. Do you like your flat? Why?
9. Would you like to have a flat of your own?
10. What furniture would you like to take into your new flat?
There are some things we have to do every day. Shopping is one of them. Shopping is a part of our daily life. Some people hate it and find it boring. Others consider it very exciting and believe it a kind of entertainment.
As for me, I’m not a great fan of shopping. But I understand that I have to deal with it whether I like it or not. When I need something in the way of clothes I go to the department store. There can buy shoes, hats, knitted goods, household goods and so on. When I want to buy clothes I go to the Ready-Made Clothes departments. They are the Men’s or Ladies’ Outfitter’s. Boots and shoes are sold at the Shoe department or the Foot-wear department. To buy socks and stockings we go to the Hosiery department. We can buy but — tons, ribbons, lace, tape, thread, needles, pins, handkerchiefs, zippers and such like at the Haberdashery department. To buy cardigans, jumpers, pullovers and knitted underwear we go to the Knitted Goods department. Ladies buy perfume, face powder, lipstick, face cream, nail varnish, mascara, shades and such like at the Perfume department.
People buy jewellery and gold watches at the jeweller’s. Books are sold at the bookseller’s, flowers — at the florist’s. Newspapers and magazines are often sold at the news-stand or newsstalls.
If I want to buy some meat I go to the butcher’s. At the grocer’s flour, sugar, cereals, tea, coffee and other things can be bought. To buy some vegetables and fruit I go to the greengrocer’s. Bread, buns, biscuits, cookies are sold at the baker’s. If I want to buy some fish I go to the fish-monger’s. To buy milk, butter, cheese, eggs, we go to the dairy. I prefer to buy food in a supermarket. It is very convenient. I can take a trolley and pile everything I need there.
to hate [heit] - ненавидеть
boring - скучный
to consider — считать
exciting [ik’saitin] — захватывающий
entertaimnent [‘entе‘tәinmәnt] - развлечение
to deal [di:l] (dealt, dealt) with - иметь дело, заниматься
department store [ sto:] — универмаг
knitted [‘nitid] goods — трикотажные изделия
household goods — товары для дома
Ready — Made Clothes department — Отдел готовой одежды
Men’s or Ladies Outfitter’s — Мужская и женская галантерея
Footwear department — обувной отдел
socks [soks] — носки
stockings [‘stokins] — чулки
Hosiery [ˈhoʊʒәri] — отдел трикотажа
button [bлtn] — пуговица
ribbon [ ribәn] — лента
lace [leis] — шнурок, кружево
tape [teip] — тесьма
thread [Өred] — нитка
needle [‘ni:dl] — иголка
pin [pin] — булавка
handkerchief [ˈhæŋkətʃif] — носовой платок
zipper [‘zipə] — застежка-молния
Haberdashery [‘hæbədæʃəri] department — Галантерейный отдел
cardigan [ka:digən] — шерстяной джемпер
jumper [ˈdʒʌmpər] — джемпер
pullover [‘pul.əuvə] — пуловер, свитер
knitted underwear [ˈnɪtɪd ˈʌndəweə(r)] — трикотаж, нижнее белье
Knitted Goods department — Отдел трикотажных (вязаных) изделий
perfume [ˈpəːfjuːm] — духи
face powder [feis paudə] — пудра
lipstick [‘lipstik] — губная помада
face cream [‘feis kri:m] — крем для лица
nail varnish [‘neɪl ˈvɑ’nɪʃ] — лак для ногтей
mascara [mæsˈkɑːrə] — краска для ресниц, бровей
shades [ʃeɪdz] — тени
Perfume department — Отдел парфюмерии
jewellery [ˈdʒuːəlri] — ювелирные изделия
book seller‘s — книжный магазин
florist‘s — цветочный магазин
news-stand — цветочный ларек, киоск
butcher‘s [ˈbutʃəz] — мясной отдел, магазин
grocer‘s [ˈɡrəusəz] — бакалейный отдел, магазин
flour [flauə] — мука
cereals [‘sɪəriəlz] — крупа
greengrocer‘s [ˈɡriːŋɡrəusəz] — овощной отдел, магазин
buns [bʌnz] — сдобные булочки
baker‘s [beikəz] — хлебный отдел, булочная
fishmonger‘s [‘fɪʃmʌŋɡəz] — рыбный отдел
dairy [ˈdeəri] — молочный отдел