Вопросы к экзамену
1. The Rights of the Child.
2. Furnishing a Nursery.
3. What Do Children Need?
4. What Should Schools Teach?
5. Toys and Games for Children.
6. Why Do Children Play?
7. A Guide to Good Toys.
8. Learning Through Play.
9. What is Bad Behaviour?
10. Why do the Children Enjoy Holidays?
Требования к экзамену по английскому языку
На экзамене проверяется
Наличие словаря с тематической лексикой, изученной в течение всего срока обучения.
Наличие тетрадей с грамматическим материалом и выполненными соответствующими грамматическими заданиями.
Наличие тетрадей с лексическими темами и текстами монологического и диалогического характера.
Наличие конспектов по аннотированию и реферированию текстов.
Структура заданий на экзамене:
Сделать письменный перевод со словарем с иностранного языка на русский язык текста по специальности объемом 1800 печ.з.
Передать на иностранном языке содержание русского текста по специальности объемом 800-1000 печ.з. (устное реферирование).
Беседа с преподавателем на изученные темы как общебытовой, так и специальной направленности.
Оценка «отлично» ставится за правильное выполнение и оформление грамматических заданий и адекватный перевод текста, что свидетельствует о сформированности грамматических умений у студента, усвоении им определённого лексического минимума и необходимых историко-культурных сведений.
Оценка «хорошо» ставится за успешное выполнение заданий не менее чем на 75-80% и знание основного учебного материала. При этом допускаются грамматические ошибки, связанные с исключениями из правил, неточности перевода, ошибки в оформлении морфологических разборов.
Оценка «удовлетворительно» ставится, если студент может перевести только отдельные смысловые отрезки текста, не знает активного лексического минимума, допускает ошибки в грамматических разборах. При этом задание должно быть выполнено не менее чем на 50-60 %.
Оценка «неудовлетворительно» ставится, если студент не владеет навыками перевода, допускает грубые ошибки в грамматических разборах
Материалы к экзамену
Тексты для письменного перевода со словарем
Early Childhood Education
Early childhood education (ECE) is a pedagogical approach to cover the education of children from the period from birth to six years of age.
What, Exactly is Early Childhood Education? According to NAEYC, early childhood spans the human life from birth to age 8. Infants and toddlers experience life more holistically than any other age group. Social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical lessons are not learned separately by very young children. \ Adults who are most helpful to young children interact in ways that understand that the child is learning from the whole experience, not just that part of the experience to which the adult gives attention.
Although early childhood education does not have to occur in the absence of the parent or primary caregiver, this term is sometimes used to denote education by someone other than these the parent or primary caregiver. Both research in the field and early childhood educators view the parents as an integral part of the early childhood education process. Early childhood education takes many forms depending on the theoretical and educational beliefs of the educator or parent.
Other terms that are often used interchangeably with «early childhood education» are «early childhood learning,» «early care,» and «early education.» Much of the first two years of life are spent in the creation of a child’s first «sense of first or I the building of a first identity. Because this is a crucial part of children’s makeup-how they first see themselves, how they think they should function, how they expect others to function in relation to them, early care must ensure that in addition to carefully selected and trained caregivers, links with family, home culture, and home language are a central part of program policy. If care becomes a substitute for, rather than a support of, family, children may develop a less-than-positive sense of who they are and where they come from because of their child care experience.
Theory and curriculum
A wide array of educational philosophies circulate through the field. Some professionals adhere to more of a behaviorist theory as developed by John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner and Edward Thorndike. Others hold to the more unstructured maturationist theory popularized by Jacques Rousseau and Maria Montessori. Additionally, stage theories such as those of Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are used to look at social and emotional development.
Currently early childhood teacher education programs teach a mix of theories dominated by the constructivism (learning theory) theory as put forth by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.
Each philosophy forms the undergirding theory behind its own selection of school curriculum used throughout the world.
Behaviorist ideas dominate direct instruction methods (like DISTAR). Constructivist ideas dominate curricula like High/Scope and The Creative Curriculum. While maturational theory is the underpining for Montessori. A mix of maturationist and constructionist ideas supply the base theory for the Reggio Emilia approach.
The curriculum in a «Head Start» program is designed to meet the needs of each child. One goal is to build self-esteem that is seen as necessary to future success in school. Staff encourage self-confidence, curiosity, and self-discipline. A variety of learning experiences are designed to meet the children’s needs in the various areas of development. Staff should work as a team to implement the new government issued curriculum and teach children, based on their interest and in a fun way. [neutrality disputed] Parent involvement should be the heart of the program. Preschool children must be provided with early literacy, awareness and intervention in order to perform better during the later years. This will lead the to success once they enter schools, and put them on the right track by being well prepared with the right and appropriate equipment.
The philosophy of early childhood education is largely child-centered education. Therefore, there is a focus on the importance of play. Play provides children with the opportunity to actively explore, manipulate, and interact with their environment.
It encourages children to investigate, create, discover and motivate them to take risks and add to their understanding of the world. It challenges children to achieve new levels of understanding of events, people and the environment by interacting with concrete materials.
Hands-on activities create authentic experiences in which children begin to feel a sense of mastery over their world and a sense of belonging and understanding of what is going on in their environment. This philosophy follows with Piaget’s ideals that children should actively participate in their world and various environments so as to ensure they are not ‘passive’ learners but ‘little scientists’ who are actively engaged. Play is a very important and special part of childhood. It allows a child to experiment with the world around him and the emotional world inside him. To many it might seem like mere child’s play but there is a lot of work going on behind the scene like skill building, problem solving, overcoming physical and mental challenges etc. Playing with products made especially for the preschool children helps a child in building self confidence, encourages independent learning and clears his concepts. For the development of their fine and large or gross motor movements, for the growth of the child’s eye-hand coordination, it is extremely important for him to ‘play’ with the natural things around him. Sand/mud/clay and water play a very important part here.
Giving the child time and playing with him make him a confident human being. We as adults can enter his world of imagination and fantasy and let him control us. This generally helps in building his self confidence and he feels safe and secure with us. We tend to build his self esteem and morale when we give him time and attention. When a child realises that the things of his interest are important to us and that we appreciate his method of play and fun, he tends to get confident of himself. It also allows children to explore new friendships with those they interact with.
Preschool is generally considered appropriate for children three to five years of age, between the toddler and school stages. During this stage of development, children learn and assimilate information rapidly, and express interest and fascination in each new discovery. These qualities make them prime candidates for education, although most are not ready for structured elementary schooling.
At the age of four the practice of vocabulary and grammar starts to become very important. For four- and five-year-olds, the average vocabulary span is between 1500 and 2000 words. In this age group, the curriculum should focus on past tenses and pronouns of words. One word concept that becomes very confusing to the preschool age students is literal statements, which are those phrases that explain something figuratively but not realistically.
Mathematical skills also come into use a great deal at this age. Preschoolers begin to recognize numbers better and understand the concept of numbers and their use. Rote counting, the ability to recite numbers in their proper order, is a very popular part of the curriculum for this age. The physical development of preschoolers should include more challenging activities. They like to do more things on their own. They love to help with anything they can and have responsibility. At this age their coordination has improved a lot and their body proportions have changed. They also become responsible for their own simple hygiene.
Preschoolers are gaining better fine motor control. They can use scissors to cut on a line. Draw people with 2 to 4 body parts. Able to draw circles and squares and beginning to write some letters. Can pour their own drinks from a small pitcher or container. Able to use utensils during meals. Parents are a child’s best resource for education before school. Research shows that the more time and effort parents, caregivers, or teachers at preschools give to the child, the better a preschool child will be able to adjust to their environment.
Some preschools schools have adopted specialized methods of teaching, such as Montessori, Waldorf, High Scope, The Creative Curriculum Reggio Emilia approach, Bank Street and various other pedagogy which contribute to the foundation of education. In the United States most preschool advocates support the National Association for the Education of Young Children’s Developmentally Appropriate Practices. Universal Preschool is the notion that access to preschool should be available to families in a similar way as Kindergarten. There are different perspectives on priorities for access and how it is to be funded.
Kindergarten from German
In the nineteenth century, it sometimes seemed that everything we needed to know came from Germany: Christmas trees, serious philosophy and science, the art of brewing beer, and kindergarten. The latter was the invention of a serious, philosophical teacher of teachers, Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel, born in 1782.
Froebel himself was largely self-educated and therefore escaped the grim, rigorous drills that passed for education in his day. He was thus free to dream of a different ideal, and he dedicated his life to providing children with an education that developed their spirits as well as their bodies by making use of a child’s natural playfulness and creativity. He was already noted as an educator when in 1837 he started the first preschool embodying his principles of guided play. Three years later, on May 1, 1840, he invented the name for it. Looking for a word to describe a sunny experience that would cultivate children like plants and let them bloom like flowers, he called it a children’s garden, that is, a Kinder-Garten.
With that name embodying its cheerful philosophy, the kindergarten idea soon became world famous. That was a good thing, because his own government, fearing that kindergartens would not impart proper lessons in obedience, banned them for a while in the 1850s. Refugee teachers established kindergartens in England, where the word was adopted without translation as early as 1852. The first kindergarten in the United States was established in 1856.
Among the countless Americans since then who have learned everything they need to know in kindergarten, one of the most prominent was the architect Frank Lloyd Wright. His sense of design was profoundly influenced by the simple forms embodied in kindergarten blocks.
German is a close relative and neighbor of English. Both are West Germanic languages in the Indo-European family. It is spoken by seventy five million people in Germany and about a hundred million worldwide. Over the past millennium it has contributed hundreds of words to our language. In the twentieth century, for a terrible decade or so, the German of the Nazi era gave us grim words like fuhrer (1934), gestapo (1934), flak (1938), and blitzkrieg (1939). But most of our words from German are more benign, ranging from clown (1563) to muffin (1703), ouch! (1838, Philadelphia), and the now ail-American hamburger (1884). The psychological insights of German thinkers also gave us the useful words schadenfreude (1895), the pleasure we feel in the misfortunes of others, and kitsch (1925), would-be art that serves only to emphasize bad taste, like garden gnomes or portraits of Elvis on black velvet.
2667 п. зн.
History of kindergarten
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel opened the first kindergarten on 28 June 1840 to mark the four hundredth anniversary of Gutenberg’s discovery of movable type. Froebel created the name and the term Kindergarten for the Play and Activity Institute, which he had founded in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg, in the small, former principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Germany. The first kindergarten in the United States was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin by Margarethe (Margaretta) Meyer Schurz (wife of activist/statesman Carl Schurz) in 1856. Margarethe Schurz initially taught five children in her home (including her own daughter Agatha) in Watertown, Wisconsin. Her success drove her to offer her education to other children as well. While Schurz’s first kindergarten was German-language, she also advocated the establishment of English-language kindergartens. The first English-language kindergarten in America was founded in 1859 in Boston by Elizabeth Peabody, who followed Schurz’s model. Schurz’s older sister Bertha Meyer Ronge opened Infant Gardens in London (1851), Manchester (1859) and Leeds (1860). The first publicly financed kindergarten in the United States was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow.
Children attend kindergarten to learn to communicate, play, and interact with others appropriately. A teacher provides various manipulative materials and activities to motivate these children to learn the language and vocabulary of reading, mathematics, science, and computers, as well as that of music, art, and social behaviors. For children who previously have spent most of their time at home, kindergarten may serve the purpose of training them to be apart from their parents without anxiety. They are usually exposed to their first idea of friendship while they play and interact with other children on a regular basis. Kindergarten may also allow parents (especially mothers or fathers) to go back to part-time or full-time employment.
1988 п. зн.
In South Korea, children normally attend kindergarten between the ages of five and seven (Korean children’s ages are calculated differently from Western children’s ages: when they are born they are one year old, rather than one day old. Also, every January 1, everyone ages one year regardless of when their birthday is: they do not age on their birthday). The school year begins in March. It is followed by primary school. Normally the kindergartens are graded on a three-tier basis. They are called «Yuchi won».
Korean kindergartens are private schools. Costs per month vary. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten. Poorer families wait until their children are much older, even 13-15 years old, before sending them to after-school academies.
Kindergarten programs in South Korea successfully incorporate much academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean kindergarteners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes are conducted in a traditional classroom setting, with the children focused on the teacher and one lesson or activity at a time. The goal of the teacher is to overcome weak points in each child’s knowledge or skills.
Because the education system in Korea is very competitive, kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic nowadays. Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. They also become accustomed to regular and considerable amounts of homework. These very young children may also attend other specialized afternoon schools, taking lessons in art, piano or violin, taekwondo, ballet, soccer or math. In North Korea, children attend kindergarten between the ages of four and five. Kindergartens are divided among the upper (party) class and lower (worker) class, where upper-class kindergartens are completely educational, and lower class have little education.
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: kindergarten
School or class intended for children age four to six as a prominent part of preschool education. The kindergarten originated in the early 19th century as an outgrowth of the ideas and practices of Robert Owen in Britain, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi in Switzerland and his pupil Friedrich Froebel (who Coined the term) in Germany, and Maria Montessori in Italy. Kindergartens generally stress the social and emotional growth of the child, encouraging self-understanding through play activities and creative expression.
The first English-language kindergarten in the US was founded by Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, who was born on this date in 1804. Peabody opened her kindergarten in 1860 in Massachusetts, based on the premise that children’s play has basic educational and developmental value.
Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children’s creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.
The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent education, especially in the United States, wnere kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl Schurz. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.
1896 п. эй.