Английски язык,экономика США

The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country. Ship-building, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research, catering are highly developed in the States.The United States has a lot of mineral deposit or resources such as coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. The most important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soybeans, peanuts, grapes and many others. The most part of the American gross domestic product-79% is created in services sector branches where belong, first of all, education, health care, science, finance, trade, various professional and personal services, transport and communication, service of public institutions. On a share of production of goods (agriculture, forestry and the fishing industry extracting and manufacturing industry, construction), thus, there are 20,6% of gross domestic product. In the sphere of agriculture about 0,9% of gross domestic product are created, and the industry gives less than 20% of gross domestic product.The American food industry generates approximately one trillion dollars a year in sales. Though the industry exercises a high level of financial, political and cultural power in the United States, it is at the same time extremely sensitive to public opinion. Major food industries have, for example, successfully lobbied for years against what they consider onerous nutritional labeling requirements. At the same time, many of the larger operators, seeing an excellent potential market in health-oriented foods, have themselves acquired or even started up their own “natural” foods subsidiaries. The local foods movement reflects an effort to restore the ecological, social, and economic integrity of organic and natural foods by reconnecting food consumers with local farms and farmers. They are developing trusting, caring relationships of integrity as they create new community-based food economies.

In agricultural production the large-scale farms giving bulk of products and defining position in the market dominate: only 1% of farms gives nearly 40% of products. The scientific and technological revolution led to development of the so-called agro-industrial complex (agrobusiness) marking further strengthening of monopolistic control over agriculture. Agrobusiness includes along with production of agricultural production its processing, storage, transportation and sale, and also production of agricultural machinery, mineral fertilizers, chemicals and to that similar, that is all that is necessary for agriculture.

For agriculture of the USA some prevalence of the animal husbandry giving more than 55% for all products, over agriculture is characteristic. Nearly 65% of the harvested space in the USA occupy grain and leguminous crops. Collecting fodder grain is 4 times more, than wheat. The main fodder culture – corn with which 30 million hectares are occupied. In agriculture of the USA various fruit and vegetables figure prominently. California and Florida together give 70% of gathering fruit (at cost) and almost all collecting a citrus (oranges and lemons).

The basic principles of food in the USA are similar to Europe. The main grain cereal is wheat. Traditional ingredients for dishes of American cuisine are the turkey, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, corn, maple syrup, meat of a deer. These products were used in cooking still by Indians, and also inhabitants of the European territories in the early period. The American style of food differs existence of such products, as chips, crab meat, chocolate, cookies, a barbecue both badly fried thoroughly beef and pork.

It should be noted that for the last two decades Americans considerably increased consumption of high-calorie food, approximately by 30%. It occurs because of great popularity of system of a fast food. Medical workers even call it «obesity epidemic». The American teenagers don’t think of the life without sweet soft drinks, and they already contain more than 10% of average daily consumption of calories. In comparison with the Russian food prices, price level in the USA is quite high.